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Recent Publications

Emergence of a large pore subpopulation during electroporating pulses
Kyle C. Smith, Reuben S. Son, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, James C. Weaver
Bioelectrochem. 100:3-10. 2014

Basic Features of a Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior for Two Very Different Pulses
Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver
J. Membrane Biol. 247:1209-1228. 2014

Transport-based biophysical system models of cells for quantitatively describing rsponses to electric fields
T. R. Gowrishankar, K. C. Smith, J. C. Weaver
Proceedings of the IEEE 101(2):505-17. 2013

Electrodiffusion of molecules in aqueous media: a robust, discretized description for electroporation and other transport phenomena
K. C. Smith, J. C. Weaver
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 59(6):1514-22. 2012

A brief overview of electroporation pulse strength-duration space: a region where additional intracellular effects are expected
J. C. Weaver, K. C. Smith, A. T. Esser, R. S. Son, T. R. Gowrishankar
Bioelectrochemistry 87:236-43. 2012

Intracellular electroporation site distributions: Modeling examples for nsPEF and IRE pulse waveforms
T. R. Gowrishankar, A. T. Esser, K. C. Smith, R. S. Son, and J. C. Weaver
Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2011. 732-5. 2011

Transmembrane molecular transport druing versus after extremely large, nanosecond electric pulses
K. C. Smith, and J. C. Weaver
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commn. 412(1):8-12 2011

Mechanisms for the intracellular manipulation of organelles by conventional electroporation
A. T. Esser, K. C. Smith, T. R. Gowrishankar, Z. Vasilkoski, and J. C. Weaver
Biophys. J. 98(11):2506-2514 Jun 2010

Drug-Free, Solid Tumor Ablation by Electroporating Pulses: Mechanisms That Couple to Nectrotic and Apoptotic Cell Death Pathways
A. T. Esser, K. C. Smith, T. R. Gowrishankar, and J. C. Weaver
in Advanced Electroporation Techniques in Biology and Medicine. Eds: A. G. akhomov, D. Miklavcic, M. S. Markov. CRC Press. 2010.

Towards Solid Tumor Treatment by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields
A. T. Esser, K. C. Smith, T. R. Gowrishankar, and James C. Weaver
Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(4):289-306 Aug 2009

Transdermal drug delivery by localized intervention: field-confined skin electroporation and dermal microscissioning
T. R. Gowrishankar, Terry O. Herndon and James C. Weaver
IEEE EMB . 28(1):55-63 Jan-Feb 2009

Active mechanisms are needed to describe cell responses to submicrosecond, megavolt-per-meter pulses
Kyle C. Smith and James C. Weaver
Biophys. J. 95:1547-1563 Aug 2008

Towards Solid Tumor Treatment by Irreversible Electroporation: Intrinsic Redistribution of Fields and Currents in Tissue
Axel T. Esser, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar and James C. Weaver
Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 6(4):261-274, Aug 2007

Feasibility of an Electrode-Reservoir Device for Transdermal Drug Delivery by Noninvasive Skin Electroporation
Uwe Pliquett and James C. Weaver
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(3):536-538, Mar 2007

Electrical behavior and pore accumulation in a multicellular model for conventional and supra-electroporation
T. R. Gowrishankar and James C. Weaver
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 349:643-53, 2006

Skin Heating and Injury by Prolonged Millimeter-Wave Exposure: Theory Based on a Skin Model Coupled to a Whole Body Model and Local Biochemical Release From Cells at Supraphysiologic Temperatures
Stewart, D.A., Gowrishankar, T.R., Weaver, J.C.
IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, 34(4, part 2):1480-1493, 2006

Membrane electroporation: The absolute rate equation and nanosecond time scale pore creation
Zlatko Vasilkoski, Axel T. Esser, T. R. Gowrishankar, and James C. Weaver
Phys Rev E 74, 021904, 2006

Mathematical model of morphogen electrophoresis through gap junctions
Axel T. Esser, Kyle C. Smith, James C. Weaver, Michael Levin
Developmental Dynamics, 235(8):2144-2159, 2006

The spatially distributed, dynamic transmembrane voltage of cells and organelles due to 10 ns pulses: meshed transport networks
Kyle C. Smith, T. R. Gowrishankar, Axel T. Esser, Donald A. Stewart and James C. Weaver
IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, 34(4):1394-1404, 2006.

Microdosimetry for conventional and supra-electroporation in cells with organelles
TR Gowrishankar, AT Esser, Z Vasilkoski, KC Smith, JC Weaver
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 341(4):1266-76, Mar 24 2006.

Three dimensional transport lattice model for describing action potentials in axons stimulated by external electrodes
DA Stewart, TR Gowrishankar, JC Weaver
Bioelectrochemistry 69:88-93 2006

Model of a Confined Spherical Cell in Uniform and Heterogeneous Applied Electric Fields
TR Gowrishankar, DA Stewart, JC Weaver
Bioelectrochemistry 68:181-190 2006

Cylindrical Cell Membranes in Uniform Applied Electric Fields: Validation of a Transport Lattice Method
DA Stewart Jr, TR Gowrishankar, KC Smith, JC Weaver
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 52(10):1643-1653, Oct. 2005

Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields
Vaughan TE, Weaver JC
Bioelectromagnetics, 26(4):305-22. May 2005

Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion
TR Gowrishankar, Donald A Stewart, Gregory T Martin, and James C Weaver
BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 3:4. 2004

Transport lattice approach to describing cell electroporation: use of a local asymptotic model
Stewart DA Jr., Gowrishankar TR, Weaver JC
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 32 (4): 1696-1708 AUG 2004

Electroporation of a multicellular system: asymptotic model analysis
T. R. Gowrishankar, Chip Stewart, and James C. Weaver
Proc. 26th Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE EMBS, San Francisco, CA, USA, Sep. 1-5, 2004. pp. 5444-5446

Transdermal microconduits by microscission for drug delivery and sample acquisition
Terry O Herndon, Salvador Gonzalez, TR Gowrishankar, R Rox Anderson and James C Weaver
BMC Medicine 2:12. 2004

Childhood leukemia: electric and magnetic fields as possible risk factors
Brain JD, Kavet R, McCormick DL, Poole C, Silverman LB, Smith TJ, Valberg PA, Van Etten RA, Weaver JC
Environ Health Perspect. 111(7):962-70 Jun 2003

Electroporation of biological membranes from multicellular to nano scales
Weaver JC
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 10 (5): 754-768 OCT 2003

Weaver JC, Schoenbach KH
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 10 (5): 715-716 OCT 2003

An approach to electrical modeling of single and multiple cells
Gowrishankar TR, Weaver JC
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(6): 3203-3208 Mar 18, 2003

Kinetics of the temperature rise within human stratum corneum during electroporation and pulsed high-voltage iontophoresis
Pliquett UF, Martin GT, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochemistry 57(1): 65-72 Jul 2002

Theoretical analysis of localized heating in human skin subjected to high voltage pulses
Martin GT, Pliquett UF, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochemistry 57(1): 55-64 Jul 2002

Understanding conditions for which biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields can be expected
Weaver JC
Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2): 207-209 May 15 2002

Microfabrication of individual 200 um diameter transdermal microconduits using high voltage pulsing in salicylic acid and benzoic acid
Ilic L, Gowrishankar TR, Vaughan TE, Herndon TO, Weaver JC
J Inv. Derm. 116(1): 40-49 Jan 2001

Non-linearity of molecular transport through human skin due to electric stimulus
Pliquett UF, Gusbeth CA, Weaver JC
J Control Rel 68(3): 373-386 Sep 3 2000

Biological sensing of small field differences by magnetically sensitive chemical reactions
Weaver JC, Vaughan TE, Astumian RD
Nature 405: 707-709 8 June 2000

Electroporation of cells and tissues
Weaver JC
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 28: (1) 24-33 FEB 2000

Simultaneous quantitative determination of electroporative molecular uptake and subsequent cell survival using gel microdrops and flow cytometry
Gift EA, Weaver JC
Cytometry 39: (4) 243-249 APR 1 2000

Spatially constrained skin electroporation with sodium thiosulfate and urea creates transdermal microconduits
Ilic L, Gowrishankar TR, Vaughan TE, Herndon TO, Weaver JC
Journal of Controlled Release 61: (1-2) 185-202 AUG 27 1999

Changes in skin structure and electrical properties following high voltage exposure
Gowrishankar TR, Pliquett U, Weaver JC
Ann NY Acad Sci 888: 183-194 1999

Creation of transdermal pathways for macromolecule transport by skin electroporation and a low toxicity, pathway-enlarging molecule
Zewert TE, Pliquett UF, Vanbever R, Langer R, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49 (1): 11-20 Oct 1999

Comparison of the effects of short, high-voltage and long, medium-voltage pulses on skin electrical and transport properties
Vanbever R, Pliquett UF, Preat V, Weaver JC
Journal of Controlled Release 60: (1) 35-47 JUN 28 1999

Spatially constrained localized transport regions due to skin electroporation
Gowrishankar TR, Herndon TO, Vaughan TE, Weaver JC
Journal of Controlled Release 60: (1) 101-110 JUN 28 1999

Biological effects due to weak electric and magnetic fields: The temperature variation threshold
Weaver JC, Vaughan TE, Martin GT
Biophysical Journal 76: (6) 3026-3030 JUN 1999

Charged microbeads are not transported across the human stratum corneum in vitro by short high-voltage pulses
Chen T, Langer R, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 48: (1) 181-192 FEB 1999

Theory of electrical creation of aqueous pathways across skin transport barriers
Weaver JC, Vaughan TE, Chizmadzhev Y
Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 35: (1) 21-39 JAN 4 1999

Theoretical limits on the threshold for the response of long cells to weak extremely low frequency electric fields due to ionic and molecular flux rectification
Weaver JC, Vaughan TE, Adair RK, Astumian RD
Biophys. J. 75: (5) 2251-2254 NOV 1998

Skin electroporation: Rapid measurements of the transdermal voltage and flux of four fluorescent molecules show a transition to large fluxes near 50 V
Chen T, Segall EM, Langer R, Weaver JC
J. Pharm. SCI. 87: (11) 1368-1374 Nov 1998

Local transport regions (LTRs) in human stratum corneum due to long and short 'high voltage' pulses
Pliquett UF, Vanbever R, Preat V, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 47: (1) 151-161 Nov 1998

Detection of weak electric fields by sharks, rays, and skates
Adair RK, Astumian RD, Weaver JC
Chaos, 8: (3) 576-587 SEP 1998

Molecular change due to biomagnetic stimulation and transient magnetic fields: mechanical interference constraints on possible effects by cell membrane pore creation via magnetic particles
Vaughan TE, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 46: (1) 121-128 Aug 1998

Electrical properties of skin at moderate voltages: contribution of appendageal macropores
Chizmadzhev YA; Indenbom AV; Kuzmin PI; Galichenko SV; Weaver JC; Potts RO
Biophys J, 1998 Feb; 74 (2 Pt 1): 843-56

Stochastic resonance at the single-cell level [letter]
Astumian RD; Adair RK; Weaver JC
Nature, 1997 Aug 14; 388 (6643): 632-3

Heparin alters transdermal transport associated with electroporation.
Weaver JC; Vanbever R; Vaughan TE; Prausnitz MR
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1997 May 29; 234 (3): 637-40

Gel microdrop technology for rapid isolation of rare and high producer cells.
Weaver JC; McGrath P; Adams S
Nat Med, 1997 May; 3 (5): 583-5

Imaging regions of transport across human stratum corneum during high-voltage and low-voltage exposures.
Prausnitz MR; Gimm JA; Guy RH; Langer R; Weaver JC; Cullander C
J Pharm Sci, 1996 Dec; 85 (12): 1363-70

Energetic constraints on the creation of cell membrane pores by magnetic particles
Vaughan TE, Weaver JC
Biophysical Journal 71: (2) 616-622 AUG 1996

FACS-based isolation of slowly growing cells: double encapsulation of yeast in gel microdrops.
Gift EA; Park HJ; Paradis GA; Demain AL; Weaver JC
Nat Biotechnol, 1996 Jul; 14 (7): 884-7

Transdermal transport efficiency during skin electroporation and iontophoresis
Prausnitz MR, Lee CS, Liu CH, Pang JC, Singh TP, Langer R, Weaver JC
Journal of Controlled Release 38: (2-3) 205-217 FEB 1996

Electroporation of human skin: Simultaneous measurement of changes in the transport of two fluorescent molecules and in the passive electrical properties
Pliquett U, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 39: (1) 1-12 FEB 1996

Determination of the electric field and anomalous heating caused by exponential pulses with aluminum electrodes in electroporation experiments
Pliquett U, Gift EA, Weaver JC
Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 39: (1) 39-53 FEB 1996

Imaging of fluorescent molecule and small ion transport through human stratum corneum during high voltage pulsing: Localized transport regions are involved
Pliquett UF, Zewert TE, Chen T, Langer R, Weaver JC
Biophysical Chemistry 58: (1-2) 185-204 JAN 16 1996

Transport of a charged molecule across the human epidermis due to electroporation
Pliquett U, Weaver JC
Journal of Controlled Release 38: (1) 1-10 JAN 1996

Transdermal delivery of heparin by skin electroporation.
Prausnitz MR; Edelman ER; Gimm JA; Langer R; Weaver JC
Biotechnology, 1995 Nov; 13 (11): 1205-9

Electroporation theory. Concepts and mechanisms.
Weaver JC
Methods Mol Biol, 1995; 48 3-28

Changes in the passive electrical properties of human stratum corneum due to electroporation.
Pliquett U; Langer R; Weaver JC
Biochim Biophys Acta (A0W), 1995 Nov 1; 1239 (2): 111-21

Transdermal transport of DNA antisense oligonucleotides by electroporation.
Zewert TE; Pliquett UF; Langer R; Weaver JC
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1995 Jul 17; 212 (2): 286-92

Measurement of rapid release kinetics for drug delivery
Pliquett U; Prausnitz MR; Chizmadzhev YA; Weaver JC
Pharm Res, 1995 Apr; 12 (4): 549-55

Millisecond measurement of transport during and after an electroporation pulse.
Prausnitz MR; Corbett JD; Gimm JA; Golan DE; Langer R; Weaver JC
Biophys J, 1995 May; 68 (5): 1864-70

Mechanism of electroinduced ionic species transport through a multilamellar lipid system.
Chizmadzhev YA; Zarnitsin VG; Weaver JC; Potts RO
Biophys J, 1995 Mar; 68 (3): 749-65

Rectification and signal averaging of weak electric fields by biological cells.
Astumian RD; Weaver JC; Adair RK
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1995 Apr 25; 92 (9): 3740-3

Observation of extremely heterogeneous electroporative molecular uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae which changes with electric field pulse amplitude.
Gift EA; Weaver JC
Biochim Biophys Acta, 1995 Mar 8; 1234 (1): 52-62

Tissue electroporation for localized drug delivery
Weaver JC, Langer R, Potts RO
Electromagnetic Fields 250: 301-316 1995

In-situ hybridization to chromosomes stabilized in gel microdrops
Nguyen BT, Lazzari K, Abebe J, Mac I, Lin JB, Chang A, Wydner KL, Lawrence JB, Cram LS, Weier HU, Weaver JC, Bradley DW
Cytometry 21: (2) 111-119 OCT 1 1995

Analysis of enhanced transdermal transport by skin electroporation
Edwards DA, Prausnitz MR, Langer R, Weaver JC
Journal of Controlled Release 34: (3) 211-221 JUN 1995

Electroporation in cells and tissues - a biophysical phenomenon due to electromagnetic-fields
Weaver JC
Radio Science 30: (1) 205-221 JAN-FEB 1995

Issues relating to causality of bioelectromagnetic effects
Weaver JC, Astumian RD
Electromagnetic Fields 250: 79-96 1995

Rapid temporal control of transdermal drug delivery by electroporation.
Prausnitz MR; Pliquett U; Langer R; Weaver JC
Pharm Res, 1994 Dec; 11 (12): 1834-7

Theory of electroporation of planar bilayer membranes: predictions of the aqueous area, change in capacitance, and pore-pore separation.
Freeman SA; Wang MA; Weaver JC
Biophys J, 1994 Jul; 67 (1): 42-56

Quantitative study of molecular transport due to electroporation: uptake of bovine serum albumin by erythrocyte ghosts.
Prausnitz MR; Milano CD; Gimm JA; Langer R; Weaver JC
Biophys J, 1994 May; 66 (5): 1522-30

Molecular basis for cell membrane electroporation.
Weaver JC
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1994 May 31; 720 141-52

Theory of Electroporation
Weaver JC
Biomembrane Electrochemistry 235: 447-470 1994

Electroporation of mammalian skin: a mechanism to enhance transdermal drug delivery.
Prausnitz MR; Bose VG; Langer R; Weaver JC
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1993 Nov 15; 90 (22): 10504-8

A quantitative study of electroporation showing a plateau in net molecular transport.
Prausnitz MR; Lau BS; Milano CD; Conner S; Langer R; Weaver JC
Biophys J, 1993 Jul; 65 (1): 414-22

Electroporation: a general phenomenon for manipulating cells and tissues.
Weaver JC
J Cell Biochem, 1993 Apr; 51 (4): 426-35

Electromagnetic field dosimetry: issues relating to background, noise, and interaction mechanisms.
Weaver JC
Bioelectromagnetics, 1992; Suppl 1 115-7

Estimates for ELF effects: noise-based thresholds and the number of experimental conditions required for empirical searches.
Weaver JC; Astumian RD
Bioelectromagnetics, 1992; Suppl 1 119-38

Rapid clonal growth measurements at the single-cell level: gel microdroplets and flow cytometry.
Weaver JC; Bliss JG; Powell KT; Harrison GI; Williams GB
Biotechnology, 1991 Sep; 9 (9): 873-7

Gel microdroplets and flow cytometry: rapid determination of antibody secretion by individual cells within a cell population.
Powell KT; Weaver JC
Biotechnology, 1990 Apr; 8 (4): 333-7

Rapid microbial detection and enumeration using gel microdroplets and colorimetric or fluorescence indicator systems.
Williams GB; Weaver JC; Demain AL
J Clin Microbiol, 1990 May; 28 (5): 1002-8

Sampling: a critical problem in biosensing.
Weaver JC
Med Biol Eng Comput 1990 May; 28 (3): B3-9

The response of living cells to very weak electric fields: the thermal noise limit.
Weaver JC; Astumian RD
Science, 1990 Jan 26; 247 (4941): 459-62

The number of molecules taken up by electroporated cells: quantitative determination.
Bartoletti DC; Harrison GI; Weaver JC
FEBS Lett, 1989 Oct 9; 256 (1-2): 4-10

Tissue electroporation. Observation of reversible electrical breakdown in viable frog skin.
Powell KT; Morgenthaler AW; Weaver JC
Biophys J, 1989 Dec; 56 (6): 1163-71

Electroporation: high frequency of occurrence of a transient high-permeability state in erythrocytes and intact yeast.
Weaver JC; Harrison GI; Bliss JG; Mourant JR; Powell KT
FEBS Lett, 1988 Feb 29; 229 (1): 30-4

Mass spectrometry combined with immobilized cells and enzymes.
Weaver JC
Methods Enzymol, 1988; 137 421-30

Rapid detection of E. coli immobilized in gel microdroplets.
Williams GB; Threefoot SR; Lorenz JW; Bliss JG; Weaver JC; Demain AL; Klibanov AM
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1987; 501 350-3

Enzyme electrodes and related technologies.
Weaver JC
Contemp Issues Clin Biochem, 1985; 2 89-107