Mechanisms for the intracellular manipulation of organelles by conventional electroporation
A. T. Esser, K. C. Smith, T. R. Gowrishankar, Z. Vasilkoski and J. C. Weaver
Biophys. J. 98(11):2506-2514. 2010.
Conventional electroporation (EP) changes both the conductance and molecular permeability of the plasma
membrane (PM) of cells and is a standard method for delivering both
biologically active and probe molecules of a wide range of sizes into cells.
However, the underlying mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels remain
controversial. Here we introduce a mathematical cell model that contains representative organelles (nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria)
and includes a dynamic EP model, which describes formation, expansion, contraction, and
destruction for the plasma and all organelle membranes. We show that conventional EP provides transient electrical pathways into the cell, sufficient to
create significant intracellular fields. This emerging intracellular electrical field is a secondary effect due to EP and
can cause transmembrane voltages at the organelles, which are large and long enough
to gate organelle channels, and for some field strengths even to porate the organelle membranes. This suggests an alternative to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) for
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