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Electroporation theory. Concepts and mechanisms.
Weaver JC
Methods Mol Biol (BU3), 1995; 48 3-28

The basic features of electrical and mechanical behavior of electroporated cell membranes are reasonably well established experimentally. Overall, the electrical and mechanical features of electroporation are consistent with a transient aqueous pore hypothesis, and several features, such as membrane rupture and reversible electrical breakdown, are reasonably well described quantitatively. This gives confidence that "electroporation" is an attractive hypothesis, and that the appearance of temporary pores owing to the simultaneous contributions of thermal fluctuations ("kT energy") and an elevated transmembrane voltage ("electric field energy") is the microscopic basis of electroporation.